Industrial Chemistry Course Description

CHM 101: Basic Organic Chemistry                                                                               (2 Units)


  • Brief Historical background, bonding in organic compounds, the carbon atom, hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp.)
  • Classification of organic compounds
  • Isolation and purification of organic compounds
  • Elemental or qualitative analysis
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Formulae of organic compounds – (empirical, molecular and structural)
  • Structural and stereoisomerisms
  • Functional group and homologous series


IUPAC Nomenclature

IUPAC Nomenclature of the  following family of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoates, acid amides, nitriles and amines, alkanoic acids, acid chlorides and acid anhydrides.

Preparation, Physical and chemical properties of the families listed above.


CHM 111:  Basic Inorganic Chemistry                                         (2 Units)

Matter: Laws of Chemical combination, stoichiometry of chemical kinetics. Atomic structure and electronic configuration of elements.Electronic theory of valences. Bonding: ionic, covalent. Co-ordinate , metallic, H-bonding and Van der Waal’s forces. Fundamental components of atoms.Stable and unstable particles.Periodic classification of elements.Blocks, rows and groups.General feature of chemistry of s-, p-, d and f-blocks isotopes detection, concentration and separation of isotopes.

Natural and artificial radioactivity stability of nucleus.Fission and fusion.Differences between radioactivity and ordinary chemical reactions.Measurement of radioactivity, decay constant and calculation involving radioactivity.


CHM 102: Basic Physical Chemistry                                                                     (2 Units)

The gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles, the general gas equation, Gay-Lussac’s Law; Gas constant. Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Graham’s law of gaseous diffusion.The Kinetic theory of matter.Derivation of the Kinetic equation.Derivations from the ideal gas law; Van der Waal’s equation, Liquefaction of gases, the Joule-Thompson effect.

Properties and Dilute Solutions:Definition of the following concentration terms; molarity, molality, mole fraction, vapour pressure and lowering of vapour pressure; Raoult’s law; elevation of boiling point, lowering of freezing point; Osmotic pressure.

Introduction to Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry

Definition of the following terms: Systems, state variables, and equilibrium, isothemal and adiabatic processes. The first law of thermodynamics; work done for state changes (PV type).

Thermochemistry: Heat changes; heats of reaction, laws of thermochemistry (Lavoisier and Laplace laws and Hess’ law of constant heat summation). (Applications of the laws in calculations, Bond energy)

Chemical Equilibrium: Chemical equilibrium and reversible reaction. The law of mass action; equilibrium constant, Factors affecting chemical equilibrium, Equilibrium between ions in the solid and liquid phases, solubility and solubility product. Effect of a common ion on solubility and solubility product.

Chemical kinetics: Rate of a chemical reaction; factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. Activation energy

Ionic Equilibrium: Electrolytes; Acids and Bases; Bronsted- Lowry, Lewis and Arrhenius theories of acids and bases. pH and Dissociation constant, ionization of water .Hydrolysis, Buffer solution and Buffer capacity.


CHM 112: Basic Practical Chemistry                                                                 (2 Units)

Hazards and risks in the Laboratory (I). Laboratory practices- Do’s and Dont’s, i.e PPE. First Aid in the Laboratory. Vulnerabilities in the laboratory: How to handle fire incidents in the lab; Natural disasters; Hazardous material spills. Prevention of hazards and risks: Signs and Chemical symbols; Safety apparatus in the laboratory. First Aid – Advance. Managing vulnerabilities in the Lab: Use of fire extinguishers and fire alarms; Lab sand bucket.  Safety, data analysis and presentation.

Theory and practice of volumetric and qualitative inorganic analysis.Preparation of standard solutions, calculation of molarity and concentrations.Method of dilution of solution and calculation. Redox titration and calculations involved. Test for common anions and identification of SO42-, SO32-, NO3, C032-, CI, Br, INO2-. Test for common cations Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+, Zn2+, Pb2+, AI3+, alkali and alkaline earth metals. Test for common ions in the first transition series e.g. Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, etc. Group separation of cations.Functional group analysis.Data analysis and presentation.


CHM 201: General Organic Chemistry 1                                                       (2 Units)

  1. Electronic effects in organic molecules. Electron displacement in molecules, inductive effect; electrometric effect, mesomeric effect and resonance; inductomeric effect, hyper-conjugation mesomerism, tautomerism.
  2. Introduction to reaction mechanism. Breaking of covalent bonds, collision theory of reaction rates, molecularity of a reaction; Reaction Kinetics, Order and molecularity.
  3.  Preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of various classes of organic compounds such as alkanes alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkenes, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, and alkanoic acids and their derivatives. A mechanistic approach should be used to explain the chemical reactions treated in each case.
  1. Stereochemistry: Conformational analysis in acyclic and cyclic compounds, Geometrical isomerism (cis/trans isomerism). Optical isomerism
    (E, Z, R and S configuration). Racemic modification and resolutions


CHM 202: General Organic Chemistry 11                                                        (2 Units)

Alicyclic hydrocarbons

Preparation properties and uses of cycloalkanes, cycloakenes, cycloalkadienes, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Aromaticity, Properties of aromatic compounds, chemical properties of benzene.

Electrophilic substitution reactions; introduction to the mechanisms of the following electrophilic substitution reactions should be studied using benzene as example – halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, alkylation, acylation, addition, and hydrogenation.

Effect of substitutions on the reactivity and orientation of electrophilic substitution of benzene. Ortho-, para- and meta directing groups. Reactions of the side chains of alkylbenzenes, ring substitution reactions, addition reactions, and side chain substitution reactions. Oxidation of the side chain.

Polynuclear compounds

Structure, synthesis and reactions of isolated ring systems (diphenyl, diphenylmethane, diphenylstilbene)  structure, synthesis and reactions of naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene.


CHM 211: General Inorganic Chemistry                                                                (2 Units)

Detailed treatment of factors that constitute Periodic properties, Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, chemical bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic bonds, Van der Waal’s forces, the hydrogen bond. Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects. Introduction to molecular orbital and valence bond theories, molecular geometry and hybridization, ionic lattice, lattice energies, the Madelung constant.


CHM 212: Chemistry of Representative Elements                                                           (2 Units)

Electronic structure, general properties and comparative study of hydrogen groups, IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA elements and their compounds. Vertical, cyclic and diagonal relationships between groups and within groups. The hydrides halides nitrates, carbonates, nitrides, chalconides, alloys should be treated. Application of some compounds mentioned and methods of production, commercial production where applicable. Inter-group similarity should be identified for some of the compounds.


CHM 221: General Physical Chemistry I                                                                       (2 Units)

Kinetic Theory:Behaviour of gases and kinetic theory. Ideal and non-ideal behaviour of gases.Derivation of the kinetic theory equation for the pressure of an ideal gas and deduction there from.Molecular and collision.Collision diameter and number. Mean free path, viscosity of a gas. Boltzmann distribution law. Types of average speed: mean velocity, root mean-square velocity and most probable velocity. Equipartition of energy.Brownian motion.

Chemical Thermodynamics: Nature and scope of thermodynamics, important definitions, the first law of thermodynamics, calorimetry, standard molar enthalpies of formation and the determination of standard molar enthalpy for chemical reactions from tables of these. Heat capacities and the Carnot Cycle.


CHM 222: Chemistry of Representative elements 11                                                         (2 Units)

Electronic structures, general properties (physical and chemical) and comparative study of groups VA, VIA, VIIA and inert gases. The nature of the elements, allotropy, the hydrides, halides and oxohalides, the oxides, extraction of some elements.Application of some compounds and method of production.The halogens interhalogen and pseudolagens.Origin of the reaction of inert gases, compounds and different reactions, complex formation and structures of the complexes and hybridization.


CHM 231: Analytical Chemistry I                                                                                    (2 Units)

  1. Meaning and importance of Analytical Chemistry, Expression of analytical results: expression of concentrations (ppm, ppb, etc.), preparation of solutions.
  2. Theory of sampling.
  3. Theory of errors in quantitative analysis, detection and elimination of errors.
  4. Statistical treatment of data including mean, precision, accuracy and standard deviation. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis. Separation methods including classification. Use of spreadsheet.
  5. Gravimetric analysis, volumetric method of analysis including Acid-Base Equilibra, Complexometric titration and Redox titration.
  6. Electro analytical methods of chemical analysis. Introduction to electrode processes and electrode potential.

CHM 232: General Physical Chemistry 11                                                                        (2 Units)

Solutions: Colligative properties of solution – lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point and osmotic pressure. Molecular weight determination by these methods. Ideal solution causes of deviation from ideality: Raoult’s and Henry’s laws.

Solid state laws :An elementary introduction. The growth and formation of crystals, the crystal systems.Miller indices Lattices and crystal structures, symmetry properties the symmetry elements of crystals.

Changes of state:

Phases: components; degrees of freedom, general equilibrium between phases, the phase rule systems of the components water. The ClapeyronClausius equation.


CHM 241: Practical Organic Chemistry I                                                                       (2 Units)

Experimental determination of melting points and boiling points.Separation of organic compounds by distillation, fractional distillation, solvent extraction, purification of organic compounds by recrystallization.Elemental analysis for N, S and the halogens.Solubility classification and identification of functional groups.Preparation of derivatives and determination of physical constants.


CHM 242: Separation Methods and Analysis                                                                  (2 Units)

Intermediate theory and laboratory techniques in analytical and physical chemistry.Advanced data analysis methods and goodness-of-fit criteria Spectroscopic methods and instrumentation.Refractometry, interferometry, electrogravimetric, polarography, amperometry, conductometry, potentiometry, separation methods such as solvent extraction, ion exchange,Chromatrographygas, paper, liquid and column chromatography; electrophoresis.Automatic and semi automatic analyzers, sequence of operations, advantages, continuous analyzers. Buffers and their applications.Atomic and molecular absorption, emission and fluorescence spectrophotometry.Electroanalytical techniques.Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Refractometry, Interferometry, Polarimetry, Polarography&Calorimetry.


CHM 251: Practical Inorganic Chemistry 1                                                                       (2 Units)

Qualitative analysis of mixtures of radicals including interfering radicals and insoluble salts.Quantitative analysis (volumetric and gravimetric analysis).Determination of solubilities, solubility products and stability constants of inorganic compounds.Complexometric determinations.


CHM 252: Practical Physical Chemistry                                                                            (2 Units)

Thermodynamics: solubility dependence on temperature, enthalpy of dissolution, solubility product constant, heat of neutalization by calorimetry.

Phase equilibra: molar mass deteremination by freezingpoint depression, molecular weight of a Liquid by steam distillation, molecular weight of a polymer from viscosity measurements.

Chemical equilibrium: determination of equilibrium constant of chemical reaction, equilibrium in electrolyte solution, determination of ionization constant of weak acid.

Chemical kinetics: investigation of rate of the reaction, determination of order and rate constant of the reaction, reaction rate dependence from temperature, determination of energy of activation.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical equilibrium, electrochemical cell potential dependence from electrolyte concentration, standard oxidation-reaction potential, determination of ions diffusion constant.

Spectrophotometry: Calibration curve, determination of molar absorption coefficient and unknown concentration.


CHM 262: Practical Inorganic Chemistry II                                                                    (2 Units)

Analysis of complex materials like alloys, cements, ores.Preparation and characterization of inorganic compounds.Ion-exchange chromatography.Solvent extraction, conductometric and potentiometric measurements.


CHM 281: Process Science I                                                                              (2 Units)

Commercial process, problems of scale and cost.Process flow sheet and stoichiometry. Handling of fluids; conservation laws and dimensional analysis applied to a moving fluid. Process heat transfer, mechanisms of heat transfer coefficients in batch and continuous processes. Use of mean temperature difference. Change of phase correlation of heat transfer data. Distillation differential, batch, fractional and continuous fractional distillation; number of stages; effects of operating variables.


CHM 282: Process Science II                                                                                         (2 Units)


Mass transfer processes; single phase and inter-phase, mass transfer drying as a heat-mass transfer process. Extraction and Absorption; solvent extraction in mixer settlers and columns; number of ideal stages; number of stages in gas absorption by HTU method; gas film and liquid film rate determining steps. Solid-liquid separation by filtration and sedimentation. Stoichiometry for systems involving recycles.


CHM 292 :Macromolecular Chemistry II                                                                              (2 units)

Classification of macromolecules; polymers and copolymers as natural, modified natural or synthetic substances. Polymer formation processes; methods, kinetics and mechanisms. The characterization of macromolecules; molar mass and distribution, molecular size and shapes, stereochemistry.Crystallinity and methods of determination.Structural classification in natural macromolecules.Bulk structure, crystalline, amorphous, glassy and rubbery states.Inter-relation of structure and properties.




CHM 301: Mechanisms of Organic Reaction                                                             (2 units)

Brief review of relevant topics in ICH 101 and 201.

Displacement   Reactions

Nucleophilic substitution at saturated carbonation: SN1 and SN2   mechanisms; effect of structure and solvent; stereochemical manifestation of the different mechanisms. Neighbouring group participation and molecular rearrangement.Electrophilic substitution at saturated carbon atoms.SE1 and SE2 mechanisms. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: effects of substituent on reactivity and orientation of further substitution; detailed ionic mechanisms for nitration, halogenations and sulphonation.

Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: SN1, and SN2, benzyne mechanisms, smiles rearrangement etc.

Elimination and addition reactions.aandb elimination: E1 and E2 mechanisms, Saytzef and Hofmann rules; Dehydration and dehydrohalogenation. Addition to C-O, C-N and C-C multiple bonds.Mechanism of Esterification and hydrolysis.Tautomerism: Types and theories of tautomerism. Estimations of enol content in keto- enoltautomerism.  Reactive Intermediates – Carbocations, Carbanions, Carbenes, Nitrenes. Selected rearrangement reactions and applications eg Beckmann, Baeyer-Villiger ,Claisan Condensation, etc.


CHM 311: Polyfunctional, Protein and Carbohydrate Chemistry                                            (2 Units)

Stereochemistry: Definition of stereoisomerism, study of conformational analysis in Acyclic and cyclic compounds, stability of cycloalkanes – small to large rings and the decalins.

Carbohydrate Chemistry: Definition, sources and origin of carbohydrates,

Classes of sugars – saccharides and polysaccharides, identification and uses.

Chemistry of glucose.Conversion of cellulose to textile fibres – vicose rayon, cellulose trinitrates, cellulose acetates, cupraamonium process etc.

Classes of amino acids.General methods of preparation, isolation and identification.Properties and applications. Proteins and other polypeptides: synthesis and biosynthesis, properties, and degradation.

Other polyfunctional compounds. Synthesis, reaction and uses of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxyl acids, a and b unsaturated carbonyl compounds, b, g – unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Unsaturated acids and esters ethyl acetoacetate, hydroxyl aldehydes, hydroxyl ketones, malonates, dialdehydes and diketones.


CHM 313: Applied Spectroscopy                                                                                 (2 Units)

Principles and applications of UV, IR, NMR, Electron spin resonance and Mass spectrometry. The determination and elucidation of structures of organiccompounds.Quantitative analysis. X-ray methods. Fluorescence methods. Brief mention of coupled systems: GC-MS, LC-MS,  and LC-NMR and diagnostic uses of NMR in medicine.

CHM 315: Colour, Textile Chemistry and Technology                                          (2 Units)

Colour and constitution.Chemistry, properties of dyes and pigments.Classification of dyes and textile ibres.Natural regenerated and synthetic fibres.Physical and structural properties of fibres. Preparatory processes: Singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization and optical brightening. Colour and constitution.Theory of dyeing. Dyeing preparation, structure and application of dyes, After treatment and quality control. Dyeing mechanisms. Preparation and dyeing of natural and synthetic fibres.Colour fastness properties. Quality control procedures and the colouration industry.Paints, Inks-classification, Preparation and uses.Chemistry  and application of reactive yes. Dyeing machineries. Printing, Colouring matters for food, drugs and cosmetics. Dyes used in paper industry and colour photography.


CHM 321 Petrochemistry                                                                                     (2 Units)

Petroleum in the contemporary energy scene.Nature, classification and composition of crude petroleum and natural gases.Distribution of petroleum andnatural gases resources (the global and Nigerian situations).Natural product chemical markers of petroleum and geological sediments.Petroleum technology Survey of refinery products and process.Petrochemicals in industrial raw materials.Prospects for the petrochemical industry in Nigeria.Prospects for the petrochemical Industries in Nigeria &LNG.


CHM 331:  Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry                                                                  (2 Units)

Some general principles relating to surfaces.Electrical potentials.Attractive forces.Solid gas interface and solid liquid interface.Definition of colloid and history of colloid development.Types of colloids.Polymers, Proteins, Gels, Association colloids, Detergency.


CHM 341: Chemistry of Transition Elements and Non-aqueous Solvents                                (2 units)

Classification and general characteristics of solvents, solute – solvent interactions.Acid base theory and non-aqueous solvent system.

  • General characteristics of transition elements including electronic configuration, oxidation states, magnetic properties colour and complex formation. Complex formation with ligands emphasizing co-ordination numbers, hybridization and shapes of complexes. Introduction to organo-metallic chemistry.
  • Resemblances among the transition elements discussed in families of transition elements e.g. scandium, titanium families. Ferrous metals and platinum metals.
  • Classification and general characteristics of solvents, solute solvent interactions. Acid-base theory and self-ionization of solvents, protic and aprotic solvent, inorganic synthesis in non-aqueous media. Separation of metals, Ligand and Crystal Field Theories.


CHM 351 : Environmental Chemistry                                                                       (2 Units)

Concepts of elementary cycles. Characteristics of the atmosphere. Sources, types and effects of environmental pollution. Waste water treatment. Composition of domestic/industrial wastes and waste management. Water chemistry and analysis. Chemical and Physical instrumentation in environmental Sciences. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. Twelve principles of green chemistry. Modern and unusual methods of pollution analysis. Biodegradable macromolecules including detergents.



CHM 361 Polymer Chemistry 1                                                                                  (2 Units)

The nature of Polymer nomenclature. Outline of sources of raw materials for polymers; Polymerisation process, condensation polymerisation in details. Solubility and solution properties of polymers.Structure and properties of polymers. Fibre forming polymers. Structure and properties of polymers.Electrical conducting organic wires, smart/sim cards, flat screen televisions.Fibre forming polymers.Bullet proof vests and vehicle bodies from polymers.Polymerisation mechanisms; detailed treatment of addition processes.Stereospecific reactions, copolymerization reactions. Phase systems for reactions. Industrially important thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers: Polyurethanes. Rubber elasticity.Mechanical properties of polymers.Analysis and testing of polymers.Degradation of polymers.


CHM 371: Resources of Industry                                                                                              (1 Unit)

Survey of Nigeria Industries and their raw material requirements.Mineral Chemistry.Fossils and their Uses.Potentials and applications of locally available raw materials as Industrial Feed stocks.

Origin, occurrence, localization of metallic and non- metallic raw materials. Derivation and processing of non- metallic raw materials to industrials feed stock for the industry. Derivation and processing of starting raw materials (alkenes. aromatics and acetylene) to feedstock for the organic chemistry industry .Energy resource–deferent sources of energy.Inter-conversion of energy from one form to another.


CHM 373: Chemical security, risk assessment and Laboratory Management                    (2 Units)

Hazards and risks in the Laboratory (I). Laboratory practices- Do’s and Dont’s, i.e PPE

First Aid in the Laboratory. Vulnerabilities in the laboratory: How to handle fire incidents in the lab; Natural disasters; Hazardous material spills. Prevention of hazards and risks: Signs and Chemical symbols; Safety apparatus in the laboratory. First Aid – Advance. Managing vulnerabilities in the Lab: Use of fire extinguishers and fire alarms; Lab sand bucket.  Classification of chemicals.Introduction to different classes of chemicals.Introduction to symbols and indicators of danger or otherwise on the different chemical containers.List of toxic/ banned chemicals.List of restricted chemicals.List of potentially hazardous chemicals.  Different types of chemicals- corrosive, carcinogenic etc.  Storage of chemicals.Working with chemicals.Identification of Chemical waste.Managing of chemical waste in the laboratory.Chemical and radiochemical hazards.Measurements and instrumentations I. Chemical Inventory Management.Chemical Security.Fertilizers and agrochemicals.Chemical Security and Chemical Safety.Arrangement and Storage of Chemicals in the Laboratory. Measurements and instrumentations II


CHM   383: Management  and Chemical Industry                                                                    (2 Units)

Part I

Management process and Methods: The nature of management and the role with the chemical industry: management theory. Managerial association and specialization. Line and staff structure: functions and relationship. The manager’s role.Organizational Structure.Authority and Organization.Corporate policy and organizational constraints on management process.The decision process, managerial techniques and supportive information system.

Managerial Economics: Risk and uncertainty in decision making. The theory of production, cost and demand analyses and sales forecasting. Pricing, Investment decision: product diversifications. Theory of business behaviour. An introduction to the anatomy of management, Industrial relation; Public relations: Industrial Psychology; Organizational Design: Management of Personnel; An introduction to the production functions; planning for productivity; General problem solving processes and creative thinking; Analytical methods of investigation.


Part II                                                


An introduction to the anatomy of management; Industrial Relation; Public Relations; Industrial Psychology; Organizational Design: Management of Personnel; An introduction to the production functions; planning for productivity; General Problem solving processes and creative thinking; Analytical methods of investigation.


CHM 387: Industrial Chemical Processes                                                                      (2 Units)

Production of primary intermediates and synthesis of industrial organic chemicals; Polymers, adhesives, dyes, explosives, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, flavouring agents and pharmaceutical.Fermentation process.Chemical processing of minerals, Metallurgy and hydrometallurgical processes.Industrial electrochemistry. Manufacture of some heavy inorganic chemicals. Cement and binding materials.Inorganic fertilizers.


CHM 391: Practical Organic Chemistry II                                                                 (1 unit)

Advanced separation and purification techniques.Adsorption chromatography, paper chromatography, ion- exchange chromatography and thin-layer chromatography; preparation and characterization of organic compounds.Reaction and identification of organic compounds.Preliminary Phytochemical Techniques.




CHM 401: Natural Product Chemistry                                                                                      (2 units)

A description of the Biogenetic chart of Natural products; chemistry structure, classes, properties and applications of the following classes of natural products:  Terpenes, Alkaloids, Steroids, Flavonoids, Tannins.

Lipids: chemical analysis, applications, extraction and identification.

Biogenesis of Natural products – fatty acids, terpenes, steroids, carbohydrate etc.

Other natural products of pharmaceutical importance, Cholesteryl benzoate, liquid crystals and digital displays in computer screens etc.


CHM 402 Colour Chemistry and Technology II:                                                                   (2 Units)

The chemistry and theory of dyeing.Chemistry and application of reactive dyes.Preparation and dyeing of man-made fibres.Dyeing machineries.Printing.Colouring matters for food, drugs and cosmetics. Dyes used in paper industry and colour photography.


CHM403 : Organic synthesis                                                                                                     (2 Units)

Reduction methods.Catalytic hydrogenation.Reduction with boron and aluminium hydrides and their analogues and derivatives.Metal reductions. Selective reduction in polyfunctional compounds. Oxidation methods.Epoxidation, hydration and  Hydroxylation of alkenes, oxidative cleavage of glycol. Survey of synthetic applications of organometallic compounds.Hydroboration oxidation to ketones.Carboxylation reactions and protonolysis; phosphorus halides and their applications, Enamines reactions and applications.Formation of polycyclic compounds.Aldol type reactions and reaction of iminium salts with nucleophiles.Synthesis of complex molecules.Pericyclic reactions. Methodology for the construction of  synthetic routes (disconnection approach), and applications fork synthesis of important and complex organic compounds. Molecular self assembly in synthesis.

Micheal reaction, Perkin reaction, Claisen Schmidt condensation, Mannich reaction, Knoevenagel reaction, Wittig reaction and Stobbe reaction.


CHM 404: Polymer Technology:                                                                                              (2 Units)

Large scale industrial polymerisation processes. Polymer Tech. Polymer processing, injection, extrusion, compression and transfer moulding of thermoplastics.Polymer additives.Polymeric surface coatings and adhesives.Production and Applications of Important utility polymers.

CHM 411: Co-ordination Chemistry                                                                                         (2 units)

Introduction to Co-ordination Chemistry; definition, recognition, and nomenclature of co-ordination compounds.

Werner’s theory of complex compound formation.Isomerism in complex stereochemistry and applications of complex compounds.

Stabilization of unusual oxidation states by complex formation. Kinetics and mechanism of complex formation. The spectrochemical and nephelauxetic  series , Jahn–Teller distortions. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory, ligand field and ligand field stabilization energy and basic elements of molecular orbital theory.

Thermodynamic stability of complex compounds, stability constant, the chelate effect, preparation, and reaction of complexes.

Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes as well as their magnetic properties. Preparations, reactions and structure of complexes with -acceptor ligands such as CN, CO and NO. Applications of infra red and nmr spectroscopy to problems of coordination chemistry.

CHM 412 Organometallic Chemistry II:                                                (2 Units)

Introduction to Organometallic compounds of the transition elements. Classification of ligands electron rule, bonding, preparation of organic transition metal compounds. Reaction and structures of Organometallic compounds of transition elements. The organic chemistry of Ferrocene and related compounds.The role of organometallic compounds in some catalyticreaction.


CHM 421: Bonding and Molecular structure                                                                     (2 units)

The nature of the chemical bond: homonuclear bond exemplified by H2+, H2etc; other diatomic molecules. Heteronuclear bond; polarity of bonds; terms that affect polarity such as electronegativity, hybridization, etc. The theory of resonance.

Modern quantum Chemistry and bonding characteristics in chemical substances. Comparisons with results obtained from valence bond and molecular orbital approximations. Experimental methods of the determination of molecular structure, methods based on polarization phenomena – dipole moment and molecular refraction. Magnetic properties of molecular substance and methods based on these properties: Gouy balance, mass spectrometry and fragmentation patterns.


CHM 422: Quantum and Statistical Mechanics                                                                         (2 units)

Quantum mechanics :Many electron atom; angular momentum and spin; various approximation methods. Hybridization. Quantum mechanics of molecules: the hydrogen molecule ion, etc. Hydrogen molecule; comparison of molecular orbital and valance bond theories. Concept of resonance and configuration interaction.

Self consistent Field Theory, Computational aspects, Perturbation and Variation methods,

transition state Theory, Quantum effects.

Statistical mechanics

The nature of the problem.Microstates and randomness.Boltzmann statistics.The partition function.The relationship between the partition function and the various thermodynamics quantities, E, H, G, S etc.Some applications of statistical thermodynamics.The heat capacity of gases, liquids and solids, calculation of equilibrium constant.Introduction to Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics.

CHM 423: Group Theory and Symmetry                                                                      (2 Units)

Review of molecular symmetry operations. Definition of groups.Molecular symmetry groups.Introduction to the mathematical structure of groups.Group representations.

Detailed study of groups Cn, Dn, C∞v and full rotation group.Applications.General symmetry applications. Symmetry of crystal lattices, Block orbitals for infinite system.


CHM 431: Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Catalysis                                                (2 units)

Nature and scope of kinetics: Meaning and definition of rate of reaction. Factors influencing rates of reactions; rate law; concept of order of a reaction.Examples of reactions with simple orders; Pseudo-order reactions, elementary processes, molecularity, and stoichiometry.Integrated rate equations for first and second order reactions.Theories of reaction rates.The collision theory and the theory of absolute reaction rates; reaction co-ordinates and transition state; molecularity, unimolecular and bimolecular reactions; Eyring equation, chain reactions.

Experimental methods in kinetics : Determination of reaction order  and rate  coefficients. Kinetics and reaction mechanisms.The steady state approximation.

Effects of temperature on reaction rate: The Arrhenius equation. Introduction to collision theory for bimolecular reactions.

Thermochemistry: The second law of thermodynamics, entropy and equilibrium; the third law; the Gibbs function, G = H – TS; Helmoltz function,

A= E – TS; standard free energies.  Relationship between free energy and equilibrium.

Ideal solutions and non-ideal solutions.Properties of electrolytes, colligative properties, Introduction to statistical thermodynamics.

Catalysis: Techniques available for studying surfaces; catalyst surface and structure; physical adsorption, chemisorption, adsorption isotherms: Freundlich Langmuir; relationship between catalyst properties and activity at surfaces; mechanisms of catalyst action, catalyst carriers, promoters, industrial catalysts and association catalytic processes – hydrogenation, oxidation, cracking etc.

Catalysis and heterogenous reactions, photochemical reaction mechanisms.


CHM 432: Molecular Spectroscopy                                                                                           (2 units)

The electromagnetic spectrum; nature of interaction of radiation with molecules.Transition probabilities.The Einstein coefficients.Frequency, shapes and intensity of absorption bands.Theory of rotational, vibrational; vibration – rotation, infrared and Raman, and electronic spectra. Applications for determining bond lengths and angles. Theories of magnetic resonance as related to NMR and ESR.

General introduction to electron spin resonance, Mossbauer effect, Nuclear Quadruple resonance and other modern techniques. Atomic spectra Russel Saunders Coupling, Orbital and spin angular momentum.Use of symmetry in Chemistry.

Use of spectroscopic data


CHM 434: Photochemistry and Pericyclic reactions                                                      (2 Units)

Interaction of radiation with matter, electronic excitation, selection rules, deactivation routes, sensitization, quenching, photofragmentation, oxidation, reduction, rearrangement, pericyclic reactions and molecular orbital symmetry.


CHM 441: Electrochemistry                                                                                                          (2 Units)

Faraday’s laws; theory of electrolytes. Conductivity measurements; specific conductance, equivalent and ionic conductivities, Kohlrausch law; Arrhenius theory; transport numbers and mobilities.

Simple cells, measurement of chemical potential Debye-Hückel equation, Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation; derivation of these equations.Polarography.

Fick’s law, Levich equation, Electrodics, Corrosion – types and prevention.


CHM 442: Physical Organic Chemistry:                                                                    (2 Units)

Preparation and reactions of stereoisomers, stereoselectivity, neighbouring group effects, and a few special topics in Physical Organic Chemistry. Conformational Analysis

Kinetic studies, non-kinetic studies, Nucleophilic displacement reactions. The effects of structure, environment, nature of the nucleophile, solvation factors, added salt etc on the course and rates of reactions, stereochemical concepts.Unimolecular and bimolecular processes.Linear free energy relationships.The Hammet equations, determination of constituents and reaction constants; significance and use of the signs and symbols to the evaluation of mechanistic pathways.


CHM 451: Atomic structure and Quantum Chemistry                                             (2 units)

Atomic spectra, types and production., spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s theory, spectra of the alkali and alkaline earth elements, x-ray spectra. Brief history of the development of quantum theory. Basic postulates of the quantum mechanics, the schrődinger wave equation, significance and properties of wave function. The quantum mechanics of simple systems, the free particle, particle in a box, linear harmonic oscillation, rigid rotator, the hydrogen atom.Helium atom, ground and excited States, Spin and Pauli Principle. Coulson Fischer function. Molecular orbitals for diatomic molecules.Simple pi-electron theory, Huckel theory. Walsh rules.


CHM 452: Nuclear and Radio Chemistry                                                                       (2 units)

Nuclear models, Energetics of nuclear reactions, Decay processes, Natural radioactive series. Nature of radioactive radiation, principles and measurement of radioactivity.Applications of radioactivity/ radiochemical methods.Radiation hazards and precautions.


CHM 453: Chemistry Of Industrial Processes                                                           (2 Units)

Overview of chemical processes and products with emphasis on the nature, origin and application of the products of the chemical and allied industries. Raw materials, availability, location, energy, primary chemical products; Industrial reactions, chemical plants , process costing, consumer and secondary products: main uses of primary products. Legal aspects; factory acts. Etc. Case studies based on industries and or chemical networks eg Industries: Oil, Fertilizer, plastics, detergents etc. Chemical networks; Alkali, Chlorine, Fluorine, Coal/Oil etc


CHM 461: Special Laboratory Methods                                                                   (2 Units)

Selected advanced chemistry laboratory exercises to enhance students’ knowledge and selected manipulative skills in modern laboratory techniques and methods- VizOzonolysis, hydrogenation, hydroboration – Oxidation, functional groups protection and de-protection, high vacuum distillation and other separation methods. Advanced qualitative organic and inorganic analyses.

CHM 462: Analytical Chemistry II                                                                  (2 Units)

Colorimetry, Flame photometry, spectrophometry (visible UV, IR, NMR), fluorimetry, mass spectrometry, X-ray methods and their applications to the analysis of substance.

The application of UV, IR, NMR and mass spectra in the elucidation of structure of organic

compounds.  Current Chromatographic techniques like HPLC, Supercritical fluid chromatography, Affinity chromatography etc. Coupled methods of analysis eg GC-MS etc.  Radio-chemical methods.


CHM 464: Food Chemistry                                                                                      (2 Units)


The nature of food; vitamins, additives and adulterants; chemistry and microbiology of production processes and control.Proximate analysis of foods.Food preservation and spoilage; processing and preservation of local food stuffs; formulation and practice of food standards.Water activity.


CHM 466 : Mineral Processing                                                                               (2 Units)

Physical processing of minerals and their classification.Mineral concentration.Liquid-solid separation and aggregation.Chemical processing of minerals – unit operations, hydrometallurgical processes. Halogen processes and metallurgy; high temperature processes and metallurgical thermochemistry


CHM 471: Industrial Chemical Technology                                                              (2 units)

Heat transfer and mass transfer processes. Unit operations.Chemical Technology equipment.Hydrogen and Carbon monoxide synthesis; gas, oxo-process, water gas, source of hydrogen and its application.Industrial organic materials, raw materials.Technical and economic principles of processes and product routes. Flow diagrams, Selected oils and fats, soaps and detergents, sugar , varnishes, plastics, wood pulp and paper. Environmental pollution.


CHM472 : Seminar                                                                                                   (1 Unit)

Exposing students to methods of information retrieval and presentation.

Student reports on an assigned or chosen current topics in chemistry. Review of literature on the assigned topics around Mining and Metallurgy, Ceramics and Glasses,  Chemistry of Paints and Adhesives, Cement Chemistry, leather Chemistry, Chemistry of Brewing, Soaps and Non- Soap Detergents, Writing Research proposals and technical reports should be included. Assessment to be on written report and oral presentation.Research methods etc.


CHM 482: Chemical Process Technology                                                                          (2 Units)

Mixing and agitation; Liquid-liquid, solid-liquid and gas-liquid systems. Scale up. Residence distribution functions for continuos flow systems. Correlation of heat transfer data. Use of effectiveness number of transfer units applied to heat exchangers. Solvent extraction with partially mixable liquids, selection of suitable extracting agents.Column height and cross section in gas washing. Multi-component vapour-liquid equilibra, bubble points and dew points; key components partial material balances.

The approximate design of multi-component distillation columns. Minimum reflux ration, minimum number of theoretical stages; feed point location. Rigorous simulation procedure; multi-component composition profiles.Small refinery configurations.Optimization. Case study covering fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer processes. Linear programming.The need for process control.Types of control; open loop, feed forward, feedback, cascade feedback and adaptive control.Primary elements, final elements.Nature of offset; one, two and three term algorithms.Response to disturbances.Controller optimization. Control systems with non-linear response characteristics. Direct digital control. Programmed control regimes.


CHM 484: Macromolecular Chemistry II                                                                          (2 units)

Polymerization processes; mechanisms and kinetics of free radical, ionic and stereo specific polymerization. Additions of polymerization in bulk, solution, suspension and emulsion. Ring opening polycondensation, reactivity ratios the copolymer equation. Prediction of reactivity ratios.Degradation of polymers; by thermal.Oxidative, photochemical and chemical environments.Kinetics and mechanism of degradation.Inhibitors and retarders. Biopolymers: organization in protein and nucleic acid structures, super cooling. Inorganic macromolecules; condensed oxyanion structures, silicates; silicon. Solution properties of macromolecules: Thermodynamics of polymers solutions. Morphology, crystallinity and orientation.


CHM 485:  Agrochemical And Chemotherapeutic Agents                                               (2 units)

Pesticides, fungicides, and insect sex attractants.Survey of modern approaches to pest and fungal growth control.Naturally occurring pesticides – rotenoids, pyrethrenoids.Survey of synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides.Insect pheromones – techniques of identification, isolation, and structural determination and configuration- some synthetic analogues.Herbicides and growth regulation substances. Review of chemical groups used in growth control. Plant growth regulators.Some nitrogen containing herbicides – a review. Synthesis of selected nitrogen containing herbicides,

Chemotherapeutic Agents: General antibiotic types. Their mode of activity. The tetracyclines or B-Lactam antibiotics will be discussed with regards to source, synthetic routes synthetic analogues, biosynthesis and mode of action. Prostaglandins.Biosynthesis of prostanoic acid, derivatives of E.F.A and B series of prostaglandins.Synthetic approaches.


CHM 486: Photochemistry                                                                                                 (2 Units)

Energy levels.Absorption and emission of light.Interaction of radiation with matter. Spin conservation rules. Electronic excitation: Excitation of atoms in the phase, excitation of diatomic molecules, polyatomic molecules, complex polyatomic molecules and other complexes. Selection rules, deactivation routes, energy transfer, simple reactions of stable singlet and triplet states. Reactions of species produced photochemical. Reactions of species produced photochemically. Sensitization and quenching.Conventional photolysis procedure.Flash photolysis. Photosynthesis, Chemiluminescence, vision and the photographic process


CHM 488 : X-ray Crystallography                                                                               (2 Units)

The nature of the crystalline state.Principles and uses of X-ray diffraction from single crystals, powders and polycrystalline materials. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry – principles amd industrial applications. Electron probe.Microanalysis.Electro diffraction and the electro microscope.Neutron diffraction.


CHM 499: Project                                                                                                           (4 Units)

Research projects into selected topics in chemistry. Students will be expected to carry out literature survey on chosen topics, perform experiments and produce reports. Students will be subjected to both seminar and oral examinations on their projects.