# Industrial Physics Course Description

COURSE OUTLINE

CURRICULUM FOR B.Sc. (HONS) IN PHYSICS AND INDUSTRIAL PHYSICS

PHY 101 General Physics 1 (3 Units) L:2, P;0, T.1 (Mechanics)

Pre-requisite: Credit in O.L. Physics & Mathematics

Co-requisite; MAT 101

Space and Time, frames of reference, units and dimension. Kinematics – vectors, Scalars, speed/velocity, acceleration, circular motion and applications. Fundamental Laws of Mechanics.statics: Equilibrium, Centre of Mass. Dynamics: Newton’s Law of Motion, force, Inertia, Mass, and weight, contact forces, Atwood machine, Pulleys. Projectile motion.Linear momentum. Galilean Invariance, Universal, Gravitation- Newton’s Gravitation law: Kepler’s Laws, gravitational potential, Earth’s satellite, velocity of escape and weightlessness. Work and energy, rotational dynamics and angular momentum, moment of Inertia, Kinetic Energy of rotation; Conservation laws. Oscillatory motion- Simple Harmonic motion, damped and forced Oscillation.

PHY 102 General Physics II (3 units) L:2, P:0, T:1 (Electricity, Magnetism & Optics)

Pre-requisite: Credit on C.L. Physics & Mathematics

Co-requisite: MAT 102

Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law, Capacitors, Electric fields and potentials, energy in electric field. Conductors and Currents: Ohm’s law, Temperature dependence of resistance, combination of resistances, measurement of resistances, EMFs. Dielectrics (Qualitative treatment only), magnetic fields and induction, Faraday’s and Lenz’s Laws, Earth’s field, Ampere’s Law.Maxwell’s equations (qualitative treatment only).Electromagnetic Oscillations and waves, types, properties.Mirrors and Lenses, reflection, refraction, applications.Optical instruments.

PHY 103 General Physics III (3 units) L:2, P:0, T:1 (Properties of Matter, Waves and Thermal Physics)

Pre-requisites: Credits in Physics and Mathematics.

Molecular treatment of properties of matter, Elasticity: Hooke’s Law, Young’s Shear and Bulk Moduli, Poisson’s ratio Hydrostatics: pressure, buoyancy, Archimedes’ principles hydrodynamics: Streamlines, Bernoulli and Continuity equations, turbulence, Reynold’s number, Viscosity, laminar flow, Poiseuilles equation. Stokes Law and application-Terminal Velocity, Torricalli’s Theorem. Surface tension: adhesion cohesion, capillarity, drops and bubbles, Temperature: the Zeroth law of thermodynamics; heat, gas laws, laws of thermodynamics; Kinetic theory of gases. Applications. Waves and wave motion, Types of waves, longitudinal, transverse, Travelling, and stationary waves. Sound waves.

PHY 107 General Physics Laboratory I (I unit)

This introductory course emphasizes quantitative measurements, the treatment of measurement, errors and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include studies of mechanical systems, and mechanical resonant Systems, light, heat viscosity covered in PHY 101, and PHY 103

PHY 108 General Physics Lab II (1 unit)

Basic experiments on electricity and magnetism covered in PHY 102. Experiment include; studies of meters, the Oscilloscope, electrical resonant system.

PHY 201 General Physics IV: Elementary Modern Physics and Relativity (3. Units)

Pre-requisite.PHY. 102

Relativity: Inertial frames, Galilean transformations, Coriolis force, Defects in Newtonian Mechanics, the speed of light; the Lorentz transformation of velocities and acceleration. Length contraction and time-dilation.Mass Energy relation. Experimental basic of quantum theory: Blackbody radiation; electrons and quanta; Thomson’s and Rutherford Models. Bohr’s theory of atomic structure; De Broglie hypothesis, the uncertainty, principle; Schrodinger’s equation and, simple applications.

PHY 202 General Physics V: Electric Circuits and Electronics (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: PHY 102

D.C. Circuits, Kirchhoff’s laws, sources of emf and current, network analysis and circuit theorems. A.C. Circuits; Inductance, capacitance, the transformers, sinusoidal wave-forms, rms and peak values, power, impedance and admittance, series RLC circuit, Q- factor, resonance, filters.

Electronics; semiconductors, the pn-junction, field effect transistors, bipolar transistors, characteristics and equivalent circuits, amplifiers, feedback, Oscillators.

PHY 204 General Physics VI: Waves and Optics (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 101, PHY 102 and MTH 102.

Wave Phenomena: Acoustical waves, the harmonic Oscillators, waves on a string; energy in wave motion; Longitudinal waves; standing waves; group and phase velocity: Doppler effect.

Physical optical: Spherical waves, interference and diffraction, holography; dispersion and scattering. Geometrical optics: Waves and rays; reflection at a spherical surface, thin lenses, optical lenses; mirrors and prisms.

PHY 205 General Physics VII: Thermal Physics (2 Units)

Pre-requisites: PHY 103 and MTH 102

The foundations of classical thermodynamics, including the Zeroth law and definition or temperature; the first law, work, heat and internal energy, Carnot cycles and the second law; entropy and irreversibility, thermodynamic potentials and the Maxwell relations. Application; Qualitative discussion of Phase transitions, third law of thermodynamics, ideal and real gases.Elementary Kinetic theory of gases including Boltzmann counting, Maxwell-Boltzmann’s law distribution of velocities, simple applications of the distribution law.

PHY 206 General Physics VIII: Alternative Energy Resources (2 Units)

Energy and Power, Principles, demands and outlook. Transformation of energy and its electrical energy from fossil fuels, Hydroelectric energy generation, principles and problems, Electrical energy from nuclear reactors. Energy in the future: breeder reactors, fusion power, solar power, geothermal power, tidal power, wind energy, natural gas and oil from petroleum, consequences of oil spill to man, animals and plants, offshore drilling techniques, energy from coal, fuel-cell power and forms of fuel cells. Pattern of world energy consumption.Thermal pollution, in sources of air and water pollutants environmental impact of pollution.Acid rain.Greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases, environment impact of greenhouse gases and global atmospheric warming.

PHY 207 Experimental Physics III (1 Unit)

Pre-requisite: PHY 107/108

The laboratory course consists of a group of experiments drawn from diverse areas of Physics (Optics, electromagnetism, mechanics, modern Physics, etc.). It is accompanied by Seminars, studies of standard experimental technique and the analysis of famous and challenging experiments.

PHY 208 Experimental Physics IV (I Unit)

Pre-requisite: PHY 107/108

The laboratory course consists of a group of experiments drawn from diverse areas of Physics (Optics, electromagnetism, mechanics, modern Physics, etc.). It is accompanied by seminars, studies of standard experimental technique and the analysis of famous and challenging experiments.

PHY 243 Modern Optics (2 Units):

PHY 261 Radiation Biophysics (2 Units)

Radiation protection standards.Basic concepts and units, Dosimetry, Internal and external radiation, Natural and artificial activity in the environment.Biological consequences of nuclear radiation. Protection measures against internal and external radiation. Handling of radioactive materials.Radioisotope laboratories.

Radiation sources.Effects of radiation on target organs.Radiological applications of radiations- medical and diagnosis.X-rays production and uses.Principles of the magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), Radiations in the material industry.Thomson and Compton scattering.Tomographic and Xerographic techniques.Physics of Infra-red radiation.Infra-red materials – thermometer and detectors.Applications of Infra-red in research, medical and military. Non- destructive testing of materials using x-rays and Infra-red radiations

PHY 274 Introductory Geophysics (2 Units)

Geophysics as a discipline.Elasticity Theory.Stress and Strain.Generation and propagation of elastic waves.Earthquake seismology.Rock magnetism.Magnetic properties of materials, diamagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism.Susceptibility of rocks.Remanentmagnetisation in rocks.The magnetism of earth-origin and Age and thermal History of the Earth.Concept of plate tectonics and continental drift.

PHY 301 Analytical Mechanics I(3 Units)

Pre-requisite: MAT 201 and MAT 204

Newtonianmechanics: motion of a particle in one, two and three dimensions; systems of particles and collision theory Newtonian gravitation, conservative forces and potentials, Oscillations. Central force problems; accelerated frames of reference; rigid body dynamics; generalized motion mechanics of continuous media.

PHY 303 Electromagnetism 1(3 Unit)

Pre-requisites: PHY 201 and MAT 204

Electrostatic and Magnetostatics, poissons and Laplace’s equation and boundary value problems: Multipole expansions, dielectric and magnetic materials. Faraday’s law, A.C. circuits.Maxwell’s equations. Current in gases, discharge tubes, cathode ray and C.R oscilloscopes, e/m of electrons and determination of charge; positive rays and mass spectroscopy; isotopes.

PHY 305 Quantum Physics (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 201

Wave particle duality and the uncertainty principle; basic principles of quantum theory, energy levels in potential wells; reflection and transmission of potential barriers; Atomic and molecular structure and spectra.

PHY 307 Experimental Physics V (1 Unit)

Pre-requisites: PHY 207 and PHY 208

A series of mini- courses on important experimental techniques, Topics covered include electronics, optics, electricity, atomic, molecular, nuclear and low temperature physics, statistics, and handling and scientific writing.

PHY 309: Introduction to Astronomy (2 Units)

Astronomical units of mass, distance and time, optical and radio telescopes, observations in space, limitations due to nature of electromagnetic waves. Solar system, physics of plants and satellites, formation of planets, origin of the solar system. Stars, distances, brightness, colours, luminosity, Stellar types, spectra, Stellar masses and dimensions; Stellar evolution. Hertzprung-Russel diagram, exploding stars, supernovae; neutron stars, pulsars, black hole.Galaxies, the milkyway; classification of galaxies; abnormal galaxies; quassers; isotropy and homogeneity of the universe; models of the universe.Extra-terrestrial life.

PHY 311: Mathematical Methods in Physics I (3. Units)

Pre-requisites: MTH 202, MTH 204 and MTH 305

Linear Algebra and Functional Analysis; transformations in linear vector spaces and theory.Gilbert space and complete sets of functions; special functions of mathematical Physics. The gamma function, hypergeometric functions: legendre functions, Bessel function, Hermite and Languerre function, the Dirac Delta function. Integral transforms and Fourier series, Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Laplace transform. Application of transform methods to the Solution of elementary differential equations of interest in physics and engineering.

PHY 313: Basic Electronics: (2 Units)

Semiconductors, p-n junction, diodes, characteristics and uses in rectification, causes of breakdown voltages, capacitors, inductors. Transistors – bipolar, Transistor parameters, FET. Amplifiers, feedback amplifiers.Zener diodes, voltage doublers.Op amps and analog computers.Multivibrators: astable, monostable and bistable, power supplies. Digital electronics; binary, octal and hexadecimal codes.Number system, designs and construction of simple circuits.

PHY 315 SolidState Physics I (2 Units)

Crystal structure; Braivaialattics, unit and primitive cell.Miller indices.Crystal binding. Vander waal’s crystal, ionic, covalent and metallic bonding. Elastic properties, lattics vibrations and phonons, monoatomic chain, and diatomic linear chain.Thermal properties. Einstein model and debye theory of specific heat. Free electron model, Fermi level, electrical and thermal conductivity. Mechanical properties, Elastic, plastic and ductile behavior.Imperfections in crystals.Vacancies, point defects, dislocations and experimental methods of defection.Superconductivity.

PHY 317: Laser Physics and Technology (2 Units)

Electron transition, population inversion in two or more level systems.Optical pumping, cavity and travelling wave resonators.Stimulated and spontaneous emission.Coherence. Einstein’s coefficients and planck’s radiation law. The solid State Laser, the Gas Laser, the junction lasers, Q-Switched lasers.Communications, Measurements, Cutting with lasers, Lasers in medicine and dentistry.Holography, Laser radar, Data processing and research.Microwave region and spectroscopy.Klystron and magnetron.The Schmidt lines.

PHY 401: Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 305

The Hydrogen atom; bohr theory, relativistic effects and spin, vector model of the atom, Identical particle and symmetry. Many electron atoms.Coupling schemes and vector model.  Zeeman effect, Paschen, Bach and Stark effects. Hyperfine structure, the diatomic molecule; S and J- J coupling.Spectra of two- electron atoms.The Frank- Condon principle, X-ray diffraction.Microwave methods.Resonance phenomena; ESR, NMR, and optical pumping and Mossbaner scattering; broadening of spectral lines.

PHY 402 Analytical Mechanics II (3 Units)

Pre-requisite:PHY 301

Degrees of freedom; generalized co-ordinates, Lagrange’s formulation of mechanics, Applications. The calculus of variations and the action principle, Hamilton’s formulation of mechanics, Applications.Invariance and conservation laws, oscillatory systems, including damped, forced and coupled oscillations; Normal modes.

PHY 403 Computational Physics (3 Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 311

Use of numerical methods in Physics, various methods of numerical integration, differentiation, numerical solutions of some differential equations in Physics, statistical analysis of experimental data, Use of calculators and computers, computer programming, use of flow diagrams, programming practice using some problems in Physics.

PHY 404: Thermal and Statistical Physics (3 units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 205

Basic concept of statistical mechanics; microscopic basis of thermodynamics and applications.macroscopic systems, condensed states, phase transformations, quantum distributions: elementary kinetic theory of transport processes. fluctuation phenomena, Applications.  The perfect classical gas, equation of state partition functions; Maxwell Boltzmann, Bose – Einstein and Fermi Dirac Statistics.Einstein-Debye theory of specific heats of solids.Liquefaction of gases, Liquid helium, Superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensation, Production of low temperatures. Nuclear demagnetization, Negative Gas, Kelvin and magnetic temperature scales, Thermal properties of superconductors.

PHY 405: Quantum Mechanics (3 Units)

Pre-requisites: PHY 305 and MTH 202

The formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of state vectors and linear operators.Three dimensional spherically symmetric potentials.The theory of angular momentum and spin.Identical particles and the exclusion principle.Methods of approximation.Multielectron atoms.

PHY 406: Electromagnetism II (3 Units)

Prerequisite: PHY 303

Maxwell’s equations, pointing Vector, Propagation of electromagnetic waves, Polarization, Reflection and Refraction of electromagnetic waves, Retarded and Advanced Potentials. Transmission lines, waves guides, resonant cavities. Antenna, Antenna Arrays.Radiation from moving charges.

PHY 407 Solar Energy Physics I (2 Units)

Blackbody radiation, application of photocells and solar batteries. Solar Energy parameters: solar time, zodiac, hour angle, zenith angle, azimuth angle and their mathematical analysis. Solar declination and its analysis, incidence angle, solar tilt, day length measurements and calculation, equation of time correction and eccentricity correction factor. Flat plate collectors: performance and analysis, heat loss in flat plate collectors. Production of electricity through a photovoltaic system. Solar panels: fabrication and utilization, installation and performance. absorption system solar refrigerator and heat – actuated solar refrigeration systems. Absorption of solar air conditioning system. Solar cookers and solar distillation systems and utilization

PHY 408 Solar Energy Physics II (2 Units)

Spectral measurements: sunphotometers, Pyranometers, Pyrheliometers, and radiometers. Solar radiation (insolation) measurements and analysis involving hourly radiation daily global radiation and monthly solar radiation (insolation). Selective surfaces and linearized transfer coefficients. Effects of multiple glazing. Biomass energy resources: biogas production and utilization. Solar water heating Systems: passive/ natural circulation pressure type (thermosiphon) solar water heater and active solar water heater. Introducing the ASHRAE standard and its utilization. Typical solar pump systems.Solar air heaters.Solar Crop drying (direct and indirect solar drying).

PHY 409 Library Search and Student’s Seminar (1 Unit)

PHY 411 Nuclear and Particle Physics I (2 Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 305

Nuclear structure: Nuclear properties, Nuclear size, nuclear masses, Nuclear forces, nuclear- nuclear scattering, the deuteron. Nuclear models: Radioactivity, Alpha, beta, gamma decays, nuclear reactions.

PHY 412 Nuclear and Particle Physics 1(2 Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 411

Nuclear instrumentations and radiation detection techniques; detectors, nuclear.Spectroscopy, neutron physics, production and detection of neutrons; fission and fusion, nuclear reactor and nuclear energy. Elementary particles; particle accelerators, conservation laws and symmetries, particle classification: strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, leptons, mesons, baryons, C.P violation; photohadron interactions, quarks, charmed particles, the particles and the search for quarks and charmed particles resonances.

PHY 413 Mathematical Methods in Physics II (3. Units)

Pre-requisite: PHY 311

Partial differential equations; Solution of boundary value problems of partial differential equations by various methods which include: separation of variables, the method of integral transforms. Sturm-Liouville theory: Uniqueness of solutions. Calculus of residues and applications to evaluation of integrals and summation of series; applications to various physical situations which may include electromagnetic theory, quantum theory, diffusion phenomena.

PHY 414 Solid State Physics (2 Units)

Pre-requisite:PHY 401

Preparation of materials; crystal growth, doping and characterization. Band theory of solids, Periodicity, Bloch functions and Bloch theorem, energy bands, metals, semiconductors, and insulators, fermi surfaces, effective mass, Magnetic materials, Dielectric properties, Magnetic materials, paramagnetism and diamagnetic, ferromagnetism and antiferomagnetism, magnetic resonance, imperfections in solids Piezo- electricity, pyroelectricity, optical properties, superconductivity.

PHY 415 Science of Materials (2 Units)

General Introduction of materials. Mechanical properties of materials: Stress, Strain, ductility, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Non-Crystalline Material: Glasses, Amorphous Semiconductors, fibre Optics. Organic Materials: Conducting polymers, Organic metals. Alloys: Steel, phase diagram. Surface: reconstruction, relaxation, work function. Interface: Magnetoresistance, integral and fractional quantum hall effect, giant magnetoresistance, heterostructures. Nanomaterials: Imaging techniques, electrical and thermal properties.

PHY 423 Advanced Electronics (2 Units)

Semiconductor power devices: power transistors, thyristors and triacs, Blocking and switching capacitors, Triggers and their requirements. UJS’S mono-multivibrators, 555 Timers, pulse transformers, programmable UJT, three phase bridge, series and parallel operations and equalizing networks. Triggering methods in series and parallel operations. Phase controllers: single phase full controlled rectifiers, 6-pulsse converters. Inverters: two series inverters, parallel inverters and PMW inverter comparison. AC regulator: single phase regulator and 3-phase AC regulator. Over voltage protection and over current fault.Synchronous and asynchronous inputs, Trimming considerations and problems. Data transfer series and parallel counters. Applications in Microcomputer.

PHY 424 Digital Electronics (2 Units)

Counters and Resisters-Synchrony and Asynchronous counters with MOD numbers ≤ 2N,presentable counters. Decoding a counter, cascading BCD counter, shift-resister counters – Ring counter, Johnson counter, counter applications. Digital clock.MSI logic circuits.  Decoders: BCD -to-7-segment decoder/drivers. Liquid crystal display.Encoders, Multiplexers and demultiplexers.Memory Devices-General memory operation, CPU-memory connections. Types of ROM – Mask – programmed ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, CD ROM and flash memory. Logic gates – OR, AND, NAND, NOR and Inverter. Boolean constants and variables.Combinational logic circuit. Algebraic simplification of logic gates, K-Map, NAND, NOR gates latches. Clocked flip-flops, SC, J-K and DFF,

PHY 452 Classical Electrodynamics (2 Units)

Maxwell’s equations, covariant formalism; guage transformation; solutions in presence of sources.Multipole expansion of electromagnetic fields.Radiation from moving charges; self-energy problems.Motion of charged in electromagnetic fields. Boltzmann’s equation; lineralized solutions. Magneto hydrodynamics, Hydromagnetic waves.

PHY 463 Advanced Quantum Mechanics (2 Units)

Relativistic wave equations, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation.Application of Dirac equation to hydrogen – like atoms. Gauge invariance and coupling of Dirac and Klein-Gordon to electromagnetic fields, Feynman’s path integral method – Feynman diagrams with simple applications.

PHY 464 Symmetries in Physics (2 Units)

PHY 473 Physics of the Earth Interior (2 Units)

Elastic waves and the earth’s interior. Seismic wave equation within the earth (P& S-waves) Reflection and refraction of seismic waves including polarization.Velocity structure of seismic waves within the earth. Surface waves – Rayleigh waves and Love waves. Free Oscillations of the earth. Variation of mechanical properties within the earth.Variation of elastic moduli within the earth.Variation of pressure, density and gravity.Geological time-law of super position paleontology and radioactive dating of rocks.Rock classification.Geomagnetism- Earth’s field, secular variation.Magnetic field in geological time paleomagnetism.Sea-floor spreading, Continental Drift and plate tectonics.Rock magnetism -TRM, DRM, CRM, stability of Rocks, VRM, PRM.Thermal History of the earth.Temperature distribution within the earth.Gravity Anomalies.

PHY 474 Industrial Geophysics (2 Units)

Introduction to seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic induced polarization, well-logging and methods as applied to prospecting for economic mineral deposits. Use of geophysics in the solution of civil engineering problems.

PHY 483 Modern Cosmology (2 Units)

Mass density of the Universe.Galaxies and motion.Microwave background.Basic concepts of time, distance, rotation and inertia.Hubble’s law.The milky-way. Scale factor of the universe. Newtonian Cosmology and relativistic cosmology.Linear size evolution.Modes of the Universe.Lorentz transformation, Special and general relativity. Doppler effect. Big-Bang model of the universe.Eddigton Lemaitre Universe.Oscillatory universe.Proper distance.Proper velocity. Open and closed universe. Flat Universe.

PHY 484 High Energy Physics (2 Units)

Pair production, free- free radiation or collisional Bremsstrahlung. Electromagnetic showers.Channels of Astronomical Information.Dispersion measure, rotation measure Galactic magnetic field.Supernova and radio properties.Astrophysical Neutrinos.Lorentz factor and inverse Compton Scattering.Models of extragalactic radio sources.Electron cooling time. Crab Nebulae. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays.Final stage of stellar evolution.Origin of cosmic rays.

PHY 499: Supervised Individual Project (6 Units)

The course offers students the opportunity to do project in contemporary Physics and under the supervision of staff. A detailed report on the project is presented by the student when the project is completed.